# FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions¶

## Server¶

### 1.12 I have lost my MySQL root password, what can I do?¶

phpMyAdmin does authenticate against MySQL server you’re using, so to recover from phpMyAdmin password loss, you need to recover at MySQL level.

The MySQL manual explains how to reset the permissions.

### 1.15 I have problems with mysql.user column names.¶

In previous MySQL versions, the User and Password columns were named user and password. Please modify your column names to align with current standards.

### 1.16 I cannot upload big dump files (memory, HTTP or timeout problems).¶

The first things to check (or ask your host provider to check) are the values of max_execution_time, upload_max_filesize, memory_limit and post_max_size in the php.ini configuration file. All of these settings limit the maximum size of data that can be submitted and handled by PHP. Please note that post_max_size needs to be larger than upload_max_filesize. There exist several workarounds if your upload is too big or your hosting provider is unwilling to change the settings:

• Look at the $cfg['UploadDir'] feature. This allows one to upload a file to the server via scp, FTP, or your favorite file transfer method. PhpMyAdmin is then able to import the files from the temporary directory. More information is available in the Configuration of this document. • Using a utility (such as BigDump) to split the files before uploading. We cannot support this or any third party applications, but are aware of users having success with it. • If you have shell (command line) access, use MySQL to import the files directly. You can do this by issuing the “source” command from within MySQL: source filename.sql;  ### 1.17 Which Database versions does phpMyAdmin support?¶ For MySQL, versions 5.5 and newer are supported. For older MySQL versions, our Downloads page offers older phpMyAdmin versions (which may have become unsupported). For MariaDB, versions 5.5 and newer are supported. ### 1.17a I cannot connect to the MySQL server. It always returns the error message, “Client does not support authentication protocol requested by server; consider upgrading MySQL client”¶ You tried to access MySQL with an old MySQL client library. The version of your MySQL client library can be checked in your phpinfo() output. In general, it should have at least the same minor version as your server - as mentioned in 1.17 Which Database versions does phpMyAdmin support?. This problem is generally caused by using MySQL version 4.1 or newer. MySQL changed the authentication hash and your PHP is trying to use the old method. The proper solution is to use the mysqli extension with the proper client library to match your MySQL installation. More information (and several workarounds) are located in the MySQL Documentation. ### 1.18 (withdrawn).¶ ### 1.19 I can’t run the “display relations” feature because the script seems not to know the font face I’m using!¶ The TCPDF library we’re using for this feature requires some special files to use font faces. Please refers to the TCPDF manual to build these files. ### 1.20 I receive an error about missing mysqli and mysql extensions.¶ To connect to a MySQL server, PHP needs a set of MySQL functions called “MySQL extension”. This extension may be part of the PHP distribution (compiled-in), otherwise it needs to be loaded dynamically. Its name is probably mysqli.so or php_mysqli.dll. phpMyAdmin tried to load the extension but failed. Usually, the problem is solved by installing a software package called “PHP-MySQL” or something similar. There are currently two interfaces PHP provides as MySQL extensions - mysql and mysqli. The mysqli is tried first, because it’s the best one. This problem can be also caused by wrong paths in the php.ini or using wrong php.ini. Make sure that the extension files do exist in the folder which the extension_dir points to and that the corresponding lines in your php.ini are not commented out (you can use phpinfo() to check current setup): [PHP] ; Directory in which the loadable extensions (modules) reside. extension_dir = "C:/Apache2/modules/php/ext"  The php.ini can be loaded from several locations (especially on Windows), so please check you’re updating the correct one. If using Apache, you can tell it to use specific path for this file using PHPIniDir directive: LoadFile "C:/php/php5ts.dll" LoadModule php5_module "C:/php/php5apache2_2.dll" <IfModule php5_module> PHPIniDir "C:/PHP" <Location> AddType text/html .php AddHandler application/x-httpd-php .php </Location> </IfModule>  In some rare cases this problem can be also caused by other extensions loaded in PHP which prevent MySQL extensions to be loaded. If anything else fails, you can try commenting out extensions for other databases from php.ini. ### 1.22 I don’t see the “Location of text file” field, so I cannot upload.¶ This is most likely because in php.ini, your file_uploads parameter is not set to “on”. ### 1.23 I’m running MySQL on a Win32 machine. Each time I create a new table the table and column names are changed to lowercase!¶ This happens because the MySQL directive lower_case_table_names defaults to 1 (ON) in the Win32 version of MySQL. You can change this behavior by simply changing the directive to 0 (OFF): Just edit your my.ini file that should be located in your Windows directory and add the following line to the group [mysqld]: set-variable = lower_case_table_names=0  Note Forcing this variable to 0 with –lower-case-table-names=0 on a case-insensitive filesystem and access MyISAM tablenames using different lettercases, index corruption may result. Next, save the file and restart the MySQL service. You can always check the value of this directive using the query SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'lower_case_table_names';  ### 1.24 (withdrawn).¶ ### 1.25 I am running Apache with mod_gzip-1.3.26.1a on Windows XP, and I get problems, such as undefined variables when I run a SQL query.¶ A tip from Jose Fandos: put a comment on the following two lines in httpd.conf, like this: # mod_gzip_item_include file \.php$
# mod_gzip_item_include mime "application/x-httpd-php.*"


as this version of mod_gzip on Apache (Windows) has problems handling PHP scripts. Of course you have to restart Apache.

### 1.26 I just installed phpMyAdmin in my document root of IIS but I get the error “No input file specified” when trying to run phpMyAdmin.¶

This is a permission problem. Right-click on the phpmyadmin folder and choose properties. Under the tab Security, click on “Add” and select the user “IUSR_machine” from the list. Now set his permissions and it should work.

This was caused by a PHP bug that occur when GZIP output buffering is enabled. If you turn off it (by $cfg['OBGzip'] in config.inc.php), it should work. This bug will has been fixed in PHP 5.0.0. ### 1.28 My MySQL server sometimes refuses queries and returns the message ‘Errorcode: 13’. What does this mean?¶ This can happen due to a MySQL bug when having database / table names with upper case characters although lower_case_table_names is set to 1. To fix this, turn off this directive, convert all database and table names to lower case and turn it on again. Alternatively, there’s a bug-fix available starting with MySQL 3.23.56 / 4.0.11-gamma. ### 1.29 When I create a table or modify a column, I get an error and the columns are duplicated.¶ It is possible to configure Apache in such a way that PHP has problems interpreting .php files. The problems occur when two different (and conflicting) set of directives are used: SetOutputFilter PHP SetInputFilter PHP  and AddType application/x-httpd-php .php  In the case we saw, one set of directives was in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf, while the other set was in /etc/httpd/conf/addon-modules/php.conf. The recommended way is with AddType, so just comment out the first set of lines and restart Apache: #SetOutputFilter PHP #SetInputFilter PHP  ### 1.30 I get the error “navigation.php: Missing hash”.¶ This problem is known to happen when the server is running Turck MMCache but upgrading MMCache to version 2.3.21 solves the problem. ### 1.31 Which PHP versions does phpMyAdmin support?¶ Since release 4.5, phpMyAdmin supports only PHP 5.5 and newer. Since release 4.1 phpMyAdmin supports only PHP 5.3 and newer. For PHP 5.2 you can use 4.0.x releases. PHP 7 is supported since phpMyAdmin 4.6, PHP 7.1 is supported since 4.6.5, PHP 7.2 is supported since 4.7.4. HHVM is supported up to phpMyAdmin 4.8. Since release 5.0, phpMyAdmin supports only PHP 7.1 and newer. ### 1.32 Can I use HTTP authentication with IIS?¶ Yes. This procedure was tested with phpMyAdmin 2.6.1, PHP 4.3.9 in ISAPI mode under IIS 5.1. 1. In your php.ini file, set cgi.rfc2616_headers = 0 2. In Web Site Properties -> File/Directory Security -> Anonymous Access dialog box, check the Anonymous access checkbox and uncheck any other checkboxes (i.e. uncheck Basic authentication, Integrated Windows authentication, and Digest if it’s enabled.) Click OK. 3. In Custom Errors, select the range of 401;1 through 401;5 and click the Set to Default button. See also ### 1.33 (withdrawn).¶ ### 1.34 Can I directly access a database or table pages?¶ Yes. Out of the box, you can use a URL like http://server/phpMyAdmin/index.php?server=X&db=database&table=table&target=script. For server you can use the server number which refers to the numeric host index (from $i) in config.inc.php. The table and script parts are optional.

If you want a URL like http://server/phpMyAdmin/database[/table][/script], you need to do some additional configuration. The following lines apply only for the Apache web server. First, make sure that you have enabled some features within the Apache global configuration. You need Options SymLinksIfOwnerMatch and AllowOverride FileInfo enabled for directory where phpMyAdmin is installed and you need mod_rewrite to be enabled. Then you just need to create the following .htaccess file in root folder of phpMyAdmin installation (don’t forget to change directory name inside of it):

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/([a-z_]+\.php)$index.php?db=$1&table=$2&target=$3 [R]
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/([a-z_]+\.php)$index.php?db=$1&target=$2 [R] RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)$ index.php?db=$1&table=$2 [R]
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)$index.php?db=$1 [R]


### 1.35 Can I use HTTP authentication with Apache CGI?¶

Yes. However you need to pass authentication variable to CGI using following rewrite rule:

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule .* - [E=REMOTE_USER:%{HTTP:Authorization},L]


### 1.36 I get an error “500 Internal Server Error”.¶

There can be many explanations to this and a look at your server’s error log file might give a clue.

### 1.38 Can I use phpMyAdmin on a server on which Suhosin is enabled?¶

Yes but the default configuration values of Suhosin are known to cause problems with some operations, for example editing a table with many columns and no primary key or with textual primary key.

Suhosin configuration might lead to malfunction in some cases and it can not be fully avoided as phpMyAdmin is kind of application which needs to transfer big amounts of columns in single HTTP request, what is something what Suhosin tries to prevent. Generally all suhosin.request.*, suhosin.post.* and suhosin.get.* directives can have negative effect on phpMyAdmin usability. You can always find in your error logs which limit did cause dropping of variable, so you can diagnose the problem and adjust matching configuration variable.

The default values for most Suhosin configuration options will work in most scenarios, however you might want to adjust at least following parameters:

To further improve security, we also recommend these modifications:

You can also disable the warning using the $cfg['SuhosinDisableWarning']. ### 1.39 When I try to connect via https, I can log in, but then my connection is redirected back to http. What can cause this behavior?¶ This is caused by the fact that PHP scripts have no knowledge that the site is using https. Depending on used webserver, you should configure it to let PHP know about URL and scheme used to access it. For example in Apache ensure that you have enabled SSLOptions and StdEnvVars in the configuration. ### 1.41 When I view a database and ask to see its privileges, I get an error about an unknown column.¶ The MySQL server’s privilege tables are not up to date, you need to run the mysql_upgrade command on the server. ### 1.42 How can I prevent robots from accessing phpMyAdmin?¶ You can add various rules to .htaccess to filter access based on user agent field. This is quite easy to circumvent, but could prevent at least some robots accessing your installation. RewriteEngine on # Allow only GET and POST verbs RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} !^(GET|POST)$ [NC,OR]

# Ban Typical Vulnerability Scanners and others
# Kick out Script Kiddies
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(java|curl|wget).* [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*(libwww-perl|curl|wget|python|nikto|wkito|pikto|scan|acunetix).* [NC,OR]

# No reasons to access from bots
# Ultimately Better than the useless robots.txt
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*(AdsBot-Google|ia_archiver|Scooter|Ask.Jeeves|Baiduspider|Exabot|FAST.Enterprise.Crawler|FAST-WebCrawler|www\.neomo\.de|Gigabot|Mediapartners-Google|Google.Desktop|Feedfetcher-Google|Googlebot|heise-IT-Markt-Crawler|heritrix|ibm.com\cs/crawler|ICCrawler|ichiro|MJ12bot|MetagerBot|msnbot-NewsBlogs|msnbot|msnbot-media|NG-Search|lucene.apache.org|NutchCVS|OmniExplorer_Bot|online.link.validator|psbot0|Seekbot|Sensis.Web.Crawler|SEO.search.Crawler|Seoma.$SEO.Crawler$|SEOsearch|Snappy|www.urltrends.com|www.tkl.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~crawler|SynooBot|crawleradmin.t-info@telekom.de|TurnitinBot|voyager|W3.SiteSearch.Crawler|W3C-checklink|W3C_Validator|www.WISEnutbot.com|yacybot|Yahoo-MMCrawler|Yahoo\!.DE.Slurp|Yahoo\!.Slurp|YahooSeeker).* [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]


### 1.43 Why can’t I display the structure of my table containing hundreds of columns?¶

Because your PHP’s memory_limit is too low; adjust it in php.ini.

### 1.44 How can I reduce the installed size of phpMyAdmin on disk?¶

Some users have requested to be able to reduce the size of the phpMyAdmin installation. This is not recommended and could lead to confusion over missing features, but can be done. A list of files and corresponding functionality which degrade gracefully when removed include:

• ./vendor/tecnickcom/tcpdf folder (exporting to PDF)
• ./locale/ folder, or unused subfolders (interface translations)
• Any unused themes in ./themes/
• ./js/vendor/jquery/src/ (included for licensing reasons)
• ./js/line_counts.php (removed in phpMyAdmin 4.8)
• ./doc/ (documentation)
• ./setup/ (setup script)
• ./examples/
• ./sql/ (SQL scripts to configure advanced functionality)
• ./js/vendor/openlayers/ (GIS visualization)

When logging in using MySQL version 8 or newer, you may encounter an error message like this:

mysqli_real_connect(): The server requested authentication method unknown to the client [caching_sha2_password]

mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2054): The server requested authentication method unknown to the client

This error is because of a version compatibility problem between PHP and MySQL. The MySQL project introduced a new authentication method (our tests show this began with version 8.0.11) however PHP did not include the ability to use that authentication method. PHP reports that this was fixed in PHP version 7.4.

Users experiencing this are encouraged to upgrade their PHP installation, however a workaround exists. Your MySQL user account can be set to use the older authentication with a command such as

ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'PASSWORD';


## Configuration¶

Edit your config.inc.php file and ensure there is nothing (I.E. no blank lines, no spaces, no characters…) neither before the <?php tag at the beginning, neither after the ?> tag at the end.

### 2.2 phpMyAdmin can’t connect to MySQL. What’s wrong?¶

Either there is an error with your PHP setup or your username/password is wrong. Try to make a small script which uses mysql_connect and see if it works. If it doesn’t, it may be you haven’t even compiled MySQL support into PHP.

### 2.3 The error message “Warning: MySQL Connection Failed: Can’t connect to local MySQL server through socket ‘/tmp/mysql.sock’ (111) …” is displayed. What can I do?¶

The error message can also be: Error #2002 - The server is not responding (or the local MySQL server’s socket is not correctly configured).

First, you need to determine what socket is being used by MySQL. To do this, connect to your server and go to the MySQL bin directory. In this directory there should be a file named mysqladmin. Type ./mysqladmin variables, and this should give you a bunch of info about your MySQL server, including the socket (/tmp/mysql.sock, for example). You can also ask your ISP for the connection info or, if you’re hosting your own, connect from the ‘mysql’ command-line client and type ‘status’ to get the connection type and socket or port number.

Then, you need to tell PHP to use this socket. You can do this for all PHP in the php.ini or for phpMyAdmin only in the config.inc.php. For example: $cfg['Servers'][$i]['socket'] Please also make sure that the permissions of this file allow to be readable by your webserver.

On my RedHat-Box the socket of MySQL is /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock. In your php.ini you will find a line

mysql.default_socket = /tmp/mysql.sock


change it to

mysql.default_socket = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock


Then restart apache and it will work.

Have also a look at the corresponding section of the MySQL documentation.

Try to set the $cfg['OBGzip'] directive to false in the phpMyAdmin configuration file. It helps sometime. Also have a look at your PHP version number: if it contains “b” or “alpha” it means you’re running a testing version of PHP. That’s not a so good idea, please upgrade to a plain revision. ### 2.6 I get an “Access denied for user: ‘root@localhost’ (Using password: YES)”-error when trying to access a MySQL-Server on a host which is port-forwarded for my localhost.¶ When you are using a port on your localhost, which you redirect via port-forwarding to another host, MySQL is not resolving the localhost as expected. Erik Wasser explains: The solution is: if your host is “localhost” MySQL (the command line tool mysql as well) always tries to use the socket connection for speeding up things. And that doesn’t work in this configuration with port forwarding. If you enter “127.0.0.1” as hostname, everything is right and MySQL uses the TCP connection. ### 2.7 Using and creating themes¶ See Custom Themes. ### 2.8 I get “Missing parameters” errors, what can I do?¶ Here are a few points to check: • In config.inc.php, try to leave the $cfg['PmaAbsoluteUri'] directive empty. See also 4.7 Authentication window is displayed more than once, why?.
• Maybe you have a broken PHP installation or you need to upgrade your Zend Optimizer. See <https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=31134>.
• If you are using Hardened PHP with the ini directive varfilter.max_request_variables set to the default (200) or another low value, you could get this error if your table has a high number of columns. Adjust this setting accordingly. (Thanks to Klaus Dorninger for the hint).
• In the php.ini directive arg_separator.input, a value of “;” will cause this error. Replace it with “&;”.
• If you are using Suhosin, you might want to increase request limits.
• The directory specified in the php.ini directive session.save_path does not exist or is read-only (this can be caused by bug in the PHP installer).

### 2.9 Seeing an upload progress bar¶

To be able to see a progress bar during your uploads, your server must have the uploadprogress extension, and you must be running PHP 5.4.0 or higher. Moreover, the JSON extension has to be enabled in your PHP.

If using PHP 5.4.0 or higher, you must set session.upload_progress.enabled to 1 in your php.ini. However, starting from phpMyAdmin version 4.0.4, session-based upload progress has been temporarily deactivated due to its problematic behavior.

## Known limitations¶

### 3.1 When using HTTP authentication, a user who logged out can not log in again in with the same nick.¶

This is related to the authentication mechanism (protocol) used by phpMyAdmin. To bypass this problem: just close all the opened browser windows and then go back to phpMyAdmin. You should be able to log in again.

### 3.9 I get error messages when using “–sql_mode=ANSI” for the MySQL server.¶

When MySQL is running in ANSI-compatibility mode, there are some major differences in how SQL is structured (see <https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/sql-mode.html>). Most important of all, the quote-character (“) is interpreted as an identifier quote character and not as a string quote character, which makes many internal phpMyAdmin operations into invalid SQL statements. There is no workaround to this behaviour. News to this item will be posted in issue #7383.

When starting phpMyAdmin, you can use the db and server parameters. This last one can contain either the numeric host index (from $i of the configuration file) or one of the host names present in the configuration file. For example, to jump directly to a particular database, a URL can be constructed as https://example.com/phpmyadmin/?db=sakila. Changed in version 4.9.0: Support for using the pma_username and pma_password parameters was removed in phpMyAdmin 4.9.0 (see PMASA-2019-4). ## Browsers or client OS¶ ### 5.1 I get an out of memory error, and my controls are non-functional, when trying to create a table with more than 14 columns.¶ We could reproduce this problem only under Win98/98SE. Testing under WinNT4 or Win2K, we could easily create more than 60 columns. A workaround is to create a smaller number of columns, then come back to your table properties and add the other columns. ### 5.2 With Xitami 2.5b4, phpMyAdmin won’t process form fields.¶ This is not a phpMyAdmin problem but a Xitami known bug: you’ll face it with each script/website that use forms. Upgrade or downgrade your Xitami server. ### 5.3 I have problems dumping tables with Konqueror (phpMyAdmin 2.2.2).¶ With Konqueror 2.1.1: plain dumps, zip and gzip dumps work ok, except that the proposed file name for the dump is always ‘tbl_dump.php’. The bzip2 dumps don’t seem to work. With Konqueror 2.2.1: plain dumps work; zip dumps are placed into the user’s temporary directory, so they must be moved before closing Konqueror, or else they disappear. gzip dumps give an error message. Testing needs to be done for Konqueror 2.2.2. ### 5.5 (withdrawn).¶ ### 5.6 (withdrawn).¶ ### 5.7 I refresh (reload) my browser, and come back to the welcome page.¶ Some browsers support right-clicking into the frame you want to refresh, just do this in the right frame. ### 5.8 With Mozilla 0.9.7 I have problems sending a query modified in the query box.¶ Looks like a Mozilla bug: 0.9.6 was OK. We will keep an eye on future Mozilla versions. ### 5.9 With Mozilla 0.9.? to 1.0 and Netscape 7.0-PR1 I can’t type a whitespace in the SQL-Query edit area: the page scrolls down.¶ This is a Mozilla bug (see bug #26882 at BugZilla). ### 5.10 (withdrawn).¶ ### 5.11 Extended-ASCII characters like German umlauts are displayed wrong.¶ Please ensure that you have set your browser’s character set to the one of the language file you have selected on phpMyAdmin’s start page. Alternatively, you can try the auto detection mode that is supported by the recent versions of the most browsers. ### 5.12 Mac OS X Safari browser changes special characters to “?”.¶ This issue has been reported by a Mac OS X user, who adds that Chimera, Netscape and Mozilla do not have this problem. ### 5.13 (withdrawn)¶ ### 5.14 (withdrawn)¶ ### 5.15 (withdrawn)¶ ### 5.16 With Internet Explorer, I get “Access is denied” Javascript errors. Or I cannot make phpMyAdmin work under Windows.¶ Please check the following points: • Maybe you have defined your $cfg['PmaAbsoluteUri'] setting in config.inc.php to an IP address and you are starting phpMyAdmin with a URL containing a domain name, or the reverse situation.
• Security settings in IE and/or Microsoft Security Center are too high, thus blocking scripts execution.
• The Windows Firewall is blocking Apache and MySQL. You must allow HTTP ports (80 or 443) and MySQL port (usually 3306) in the “in” and “out” directions.

### 5.17 With Firefox, I cannot delete rows of data or drop a database.¶

Many users have confirmed that the Tabbrowser Extensions plugin they installed in their Firefox is causing the problem.

### 5.19 I get JavaScript errors in my browser.¶

Issues have been reported with some combinations of browser extensions. To troubleshoot, disable all extensions then clear your browser cache to see if the problem goes away.

### 5.20 I get errors about violating Content Security Policy.¶

If you see errors like:

Refused to apply inline style because it violates the following Content Security Policy directive


This is usually caused by some software, which wrongly rewrites Content Security Policy headers. Usually this is caused by antivirus proxy or browser addons which are causing such errors.

If you see these errors, try disabling the HTTP proxy in antivirus or disable the Content Security Policy rewriting in it. If that doesn’t help, try disabling browser extensions.

Alternatively it can be also server configuration issue (if the webserver is configured to emit Content Security Policy headers, they can override the ones from phpMyAdmin).

Programs known to cause these kind of errors:

• Kaspersky Internet Security

### 5.21 I get errors about potentially unsafe operation when browsing table or executing SQL query.¶

If you see errors like:

A potentially unsafe operation has been detected in your request to this site.


This is usually caused by web application firewall doing requests filtering. It tries to prevent SQL injection, however phpMyAdmin is tool designed to execute SQL queries, thus it makes it unusable.

Please whitelist phpMyAdmin scripts from the web application firewall settings or disable it completely for phpMyAdmin path.

Programs known to cause these kind of errors:

• Wordfence Web Application Firewall

### 6.1 I can’t insert new rows into a table / I can’t create a table - MySQL brings up a SQL error.¶

Examine the SQL error with care. Often the problem is caused by specifying a wrong column-type. Common errors include:

• Using VARCHAR without a size argument
• Using TEXT or BLOB with a size argument

Also, look at the syntax chapter in the MySQL manual to confirm that your syntax is correct.

### 6.2 When I create a table, I set an index for two columns and phpMyAdmin generates only one index with those two columns.¶

This is the way to create a multi-columns index. If you want two indexes, create the first one when creating the table, save, then display the table properties and click the Index link to create the other index.

### 6.3 How can I insert a null value into my table?¶

Since version 2.2.3, you have a checkbox for each column that can be null. Before 2.2.3, you had to enter “null”, without the quotes, as the column’s value. Since version 2.5.5, you have to use the checkbox to get a real NULL value, so if you enter “NULL” this means you want a literal NULL in the column, and not a NULL value (this works in PHP4).

### 6.22 Bookmarks: Can I execute a default bookmark automatically when entering Browse mode for a table?¶

Yes. If a bookmark has the same label as a table name and it’s not a public bookmark, it will be executed.

Bookmarks

### 6.23 Export: I heard phpMyAdmin can export Microsoft Excel files?¶

You can use CSV for Microsoft Excel, which works out of the box.

Changed in version 3.4.5: Since phpMyAdmin 3.4.5 support for direct export to Microsoft Excel version 97 and newer was dropped.

Automatic migration of a table’s pmadb-style column comments to the native ones is done whenever you enter Structure page for this table.

### 6.26 How can I select a range of rows?¶

Click the first row of the range, hold the shift key and click the last row of the range. This works everywhere you see rows, for example in Browse mode or on the Structure page.

### 6.27 What format strings can I use?¶

In all places where phpMyAdmin accepts format strings, you can use @VARIABLE@ expansion and strftime format strings. The expanded variables depend on a context (for example, if you haven’t chosen a table, you can not get the table name), but the following variables can be used:

@HTTP_HOST@
@SERVER@
MySQL server name
@VERBOSE@
Verbose MySQL server name as defined in $cfg['Servers'][$i]['verbose']
@VSERVER@
Verbose MySQL server name if set, otherwise normal
@DATABASE@
Currently opened database
@TABLE@
Currently opened table
@COLUMNS@
Columns of the currently opened table
@PHPMYADMIN@

### 6.28 How can I easily edit relational schema for export?¶

By clicking on the button ‘toggle scratchboard’ on the page where you edit x/y coordinates of those elements you can activate a scratchboard where all your elements are placed. By clicking on an element, you can move them around in the pre-defined area and the x/y coordinates will get updated dynamically. Likewise, when entering a new position directly into the input field, the new position in the scratchboard changes after your cursor leaves the input field.

You have to click on the ‘OK’-button below the tables to save the new positions. If you want to place a new element, first add it to the table of elements and then you can drag the new element around.

By changing the paper size and the orientation you can change the size of the scratchboard as well. You can do so by just changing the dropdown field below, and the scratchboard will resize automatically, without interfering with the current placement of the elements.

If ever an element gets out of range you can either enlarge the paper size or click on the ‘reset’ button to place all elements below each other.

### 6.29 Why can’t I get a chart from my query result table?¶

Not every table can be put to the chart. Only tables with one, two or three columns can be visualised as a chart. Moreover the table must be in a special format for chart script to understand it. Currently supported formats can be found in Charts.

### 6.30 Import: How can I import ESRI Shapefiles?¶

An ESRI Shapefile is actually a set of several files, where .shp file contains geometry data and .dbf file contains data related to those geometry data. To read data from .dbf file you need to have PHP compiled with the dBase extension (–enable-dbase). Otherwise only geometry data will be imported.

To upload these set of files you can use either of the following methods:

Configure upload directory with $cfg['UploadDir'], upload both .shp and .dbf files with the same filename and chose the .shp file from the import page. Create a zip archive with .shp and .dbf files and import it. For this to work, you need to set $cfg['TempDir'] to a place where the web server user can write (for example './tmp').

To create the temporary directory on a UNIX-based system, you can do:

cd phpMyAdmin
mkdir tmp
chmod o+rwx tmp


### 6.31 How do I create a relation in designer?¶

To select relation, click: The display column is shown in pink. To set/unset a column as the display column, click the “Choose column to display” icon, then click on the appropriate column name.

### 6.32 How can I use the zoom search feature?¶

The Zoom search feature is an alternative to table search feature. It allows you to explore a table by representing its data in a scatter plot. You can locate this feature by selecting a table and clicking the Search tab. One of the sub-tabs in the Table Search page is Zoom Search.

Consider the table REL_persons in 6.6 How can I use the relation table in Query-by-example? for an example. To use zoom search, two columns need to be selected, for example, id and town_code. The id values will be represented on one axis and town_code values on the other axis. Each row will be represented as a point in a scatter plot based on its id and town_code. You can include two additional search criteria apart from the two fields to display.

You can choose which field should be displayed as label for each point. If a display column has been set for the table (see 6.7 How can I use the “display column” feature?), it is taken as the label unless you specify otherwise. You can also select the maximum number of rows you want to be displayed in the plot by specifing it in the ‘Max rows to plot’ field. Once you have decided over your criteria, click ‘Go’ to display the plot.

After the plot is generated, you can use the mousewheel to zoom in and out of the plot. In addition, panning feature is enabled to navigate through the plot. You can zoom-in to a certain level of detail and use panning to locate your area of interest. Clicking on a point opens a dialogue box, displaying field values of the data row represented by the point. You can edit the values if required and click on submit to issue an update query. Basic instructions on how to use can be viewed by clicking the ‘How to use?’ link located just above the plot.

### 6.33 When browsing a table, how can I copy a column name?¶

Selecting the name of the column within the browse table header cell for copying is difficult, as the columns support reordering by dragging the header cells as well as sorting by clicking on the linked column name. To copy a column name, double-click on the empty area next to the column name, when the tooltip tells you to do so. This will show you an input box with the column name. You may right-click the column name within this input box to copy it to your clipboard.

### 6.34 How can I use the Favorite Tables feature?¶

Favorite Tables feature is very much similar to Recent Tables feature. It allows you to add a shortcut for the frequently used tables of any database in the navigation panel . You can easily navigate to any table in the list by simply choosing it from the list. These tables are stored in your browser’s local storage if you have not configured your phpMyAdmin Configuration Storage. Otherwise these entries are stored in phpMyAdmin Configuration Storage.

IMPORTANT: In absence of phpMyAdmin Configuration Storage, your Favorite tables may be different in different browsers based on your different selections in them.

To add a table to Favorite list simply click on the Gray star in front of a table name in the list of tables of a Database and wait until it turns to Yellow. To remove a table from list, simply click on the Yellow star and wait until it turns Gray again.

Using \$cfg['NumFavoriteTables'] in your config.inc.php file, you can define the maximum number of favorite tables shown in the navigation panel. Its default value is 10.

### 6.35 How can I use the Range search feature?¶

With the help of range search feature, one can specify a range of values for particular column(s) while performing search operation on a table from the Search tab.

To use this feature simply click on the BETWEEN or NOT BETWEEN operators from the operator select list in front of the column name. On choosing one of the above options, a dialog box will show up asking for the Minimum and Maximum value for that column. Only the specified range of values will be included in case of BETWEEN and excluded in case of NOT BETWEEN from the final results.

Note: The Range search feature will work only Numeric and Date data type columns.

### 6.36 What is Central columns and how can I use this feature?¶

As the name suggests, the Central columns feature enables to maintain a central list of columns per database to avoid similar name for the same data element and bring consistency of data type for the same data element. You can use the central list of columns to add an element to any table structure in that database which will save from writing similar column name and column definition.

To add a column to central list, go to table structure page, check the columns you want to include and then simply click on “Add to central columns”. If you want to add all unique columns from more than one table from a database then go to database structure page, check the tables you want to include and then select “Add columns to central list”.

To remove a column from central list, go to Table structure page, check the columns you want to remove and then simply click on “Remove from central columns”. If you want to remove all columns from more than one tables from a database then go to database structure page, check the tables you want to include and then select “Remove columns from central list”.

To view and manage the central list, select the database you want to manage central columns for then from the top menu click on “Central columns”. You will be taken to a page where you will have options to edit, delete or add new columns to central list.

### 6.37 How can I use Improve Table structure feature?¶

Improve table structure feature helps to bring the table structure upto Third Normal Form. A wizard is presented to user which asks questions about the elements during the various steps for normalization and a new structure is proposed accordingly to bring the table into the First/Second/Third Normal form. On startup of the wizard, user gets to select upto what normal form they want to normalize the table structure.

Here is an example table which you can use to test all of the three First, Second and Third Normal Form.

CREATE TABLE VetOffice (
petName varchar(64) NOT NULL,
petBreed varchar(64) NOT NULL,
petType varchar(64) NOT NULL,
petDOB date NOT NULL,
ownerLastName varchar(64) NOT NULL,
ownerFirstName varchar(64) NOT NULL,
ownerPhone1 int(12) NOT NULL,
ownerPhone2 int(12) NOT NULL,
ownerEmail varchar(64) NOT NULL,
);


The above table is not in First normal Form as no primary key exists. Primary key is supposed to be (petName,ownerLastName,ownerFirstName) . If the primary key is chosen as suggested the resultant table won’t be in Second as well as Third Normal form as the following dependencies exists.

(OwnerLastName, OwnerFirstName) -> OwnerEmail
(OwnerLastName, OwnerFirstName) -> OwnerPhone
PetBreed -> PetType


Which says, OwnerEmail depends on OwnerLastName and OwnerFirstName. OwnerPhone depends on OwnerLastName and OwnerFirstName. PetType depends on PetBreed.

### 6.38 How can I reassign auto-incremented values?¶

Some users prefer their AUTO_INCREMENT values to be consecutive; this is not always the case after row deletion.

Here are the steps to accomplish this. These are manual steps because they involve a manual verification at one point.

• Ensure that you have exclusive access to the table to rearrange
• On your primary key column (i.e. id), remove the AUTO_INCREMENT setting
• Delete your primary key in Structure > indexes
• Create a new column future_id as primary key, AUTO_INCREMENT
• Browse your table and verify that the new increments correspond to what you’re expecting
• Drop your old id column
• Rename the future_id column to id
• Move the new id column via Structure > Move columns

### 6.39 What is the “Adjust privileges” option when renaming, copying, or moving a database, table, column, or procedure?¶

When renaming/copying/moving a database/table/column/procedure, MySQL does not adjust the original privileges relating to these objects on its own. By selecting this option, phpMyAdmin will adjust the privilege table so that users have the same privileges on the new items.

For example: A user ‘bob’@’localhost’ has a ‘SELECT’ privilege on a column named ‘id’. Now, if this column is renamed to ‘id_new’, MySQL, on its own, would not adjust the column privileges to the new column name. phpMyAdmin can make this adjustment for you automatically.

Notes:

• While adjusting privileges for a database, the privileges of all database-related elements (tables, columns and procedures) are also adjusted to the database’s new name.
• Similarly, while adjusting privileges for a table, the privileges of all the columns inside the new table are also adjusted.
• While adjusting privileges, the user performing the operation must have the following privileges:
• SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE privileges on following tables: mysql.db, mysql.columns_priv, mysql.tables_priv, mysql.procs_priv
• FLUSH privilege (GLOBAL)

Thus, if you want to replicate the database/table/column/procedure as it is while renaming/copying/moving these objects, make sure you have checked this option.

### 6.40 I see “Bind parameters” checkbox in the “SQL” page. How do I write parameterized SQL queries?¶

From version 4.5, phpMyAdmin allows users to execute parameterized queries in the “SQL” page. Parameters should be prefixed with a colon(:) and when the “Bind parameters” checkbox is checked these parameters will be identified and input fields for these parameters will be presented. Values entered in these field will be substituted in the query before being executed.

### 6.41 I get import errors while importing the dumps exported from older MySQL versions (pre-5.7.6) into newer MySQL versions (5.7.7+), but they work fine when imported back on same older versions ?¶

If you get errors like #1031 - Table storage engine for ‘table_name’ doesn’t have this option while importing the dumps exported from pre-5.7.7 MySQL servers into new MySQL server versions 5.7.7+, it might be because ROW_FORMAT=FIXED is not supported with InnoDB tables. Moreover, the value of innodb_strict_mode would define if this would be reported as a warning or as an error.

Since MySQL version 5.7.9, the default value for innodb_strict_mode is ON and thus would generate an error when such a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement is encountered.

There are two ways of preventing such errors while importing:

• Change the value of innodb_strict_mode to OFF before starting the import and turn it ON after the import is successfully completed.
• This can be achieved in two ways:
• Go to ‘Variables’ page and edit the value of innodb_strict_mode
• Run the query : SET GLOBAL innodb_strict_mode = ‘[value]’

After the import is done, it is suggested that the value of innodb_strict_mode should be reset to the original value.

### 7.2 I want to translate the messages to a new language or upgrade an existing language, where do I start?¶

Translations are very welcome and all you need to have are the language skills. The easiest way is to use our online translation service. You can check out all the possibilities to translate in the translate section on our website.

### 7.3 I would like to help out with the development of phpMyAdmin. How should I proceed?¶

We welcome every contribution to the development of phpMyAdmin. You can check out all the possibilities to contribute in the contribute section on our website.

## Security¶

### 8.2 How can I protect phpMyAdmin against brute force attacks?¶

If you use Apache web server, phpMyAdmin exports information about authentication to the Apache environment and it can be used in Apache logs. Currently there are two variables available:

userID
User name of currently active user (he does not have to be logged in).
userStatus
Status of currently active user, one of ok (user is logged in), mysql-denied (MySQL denied user login), allow-denied (user denied by allow/deny rules), root-denied (root is denied in configuration), empty-denied (empty password is denied).

LogFormat directive for Apache can look like following:

LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\" %{userID}n %{userStatus}n"   pma_combined


You can then use any log analyzing tools to detect possible break-in attempts.

### 8.3 Why are there path disclosures when directly loading certain files?¶

This is a server configuration problem. Never enable display_errors on a production site.

### 8.4 CSV files exported from phpMyAdmin could allow a formula injection attack.¶

It is possible to generate a CSV file that, when imported to a spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel, could potentially allow the execution of arbitrary commands.

The CSV files generated by phpMyAdmin could potentially contain text that would be interpreted by a spreadsheet program as a formula, but we do not believe escaping those fields is the proper behavior. There is no means to properly escape and differentiate between a desired text output and a formula that should be escaped, and CSV is a text format where function definitions should not be interpreted anyway. We have discussed this at length and feel it is the responsibility of the spreadsheet program to properly parse and sanitize such data on input instead.

Google also has a similar view.